Project location: Blom Almond Orchard in Modesto, CA (LDRD project from 2016 – 2018)

The goal of the AgMAR project was to understand how the applied flood water was infiltrating into the subsurface by monitoring the infiltration with time-lapse electrical tomography (ERT) and Deuterium tracers. In addition, ERT, full-waveform seismic, and soil cores were used to characterize the subsurface beneath the flooded portion of the orchard.


Waterhouse, H., B. Arora, N.F. Spycher, P.S. Nico, C. Ulrich, H.E. Dahlke, W.R. Horwath, (2021). Influence of Agricultural Managed Aquifer Recharge (AgMAR) and Stratigraphic Heterogeneities on Nitrate Reduction in the Deep Subsurface. Water Resources Research, First published: 24 April 2021,